Drug resistance and population structure of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in the Peruvian Amazon

Fredy E. Villena, Juan F. Sanchez, Oscar Nolasco, Greys Braga, Leonila Ricopa, Keare Barazorda, Carola J. Salas, Carmen Lucas, Stephen E. Lizewski, Christie A. Joya, Dionicia Gamboa, Christopher Delgado-Ratto, Hugo O. Valdivia

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Resumen

Malaria is a major health problem in Peru despite substantial progress achieved by the ongoing malaria elimination program. This study explored the population genetics of 63 Plasmodium falciparum and 170 P. vivax cases collected in the Peruvian Amazon Basin between 2015 and 2019. Microscopy and PCR were used for malaria detection and positive samples were genotyped at neutral and drug resistance-associated regions. The P. falciparum population exhibited a low nucleotide diversity (π = 0.02) whereas the P. vivax population presented a higher genetic diversity (π = 0.34). All P. falciparum samples (n = 63) carried chloroquine (CQ) resistant mutations on Pfcrt. Most P. falciparum samples (53 out of 54) carried sulfadoxine (SD) resistant mutations on Pfdhfr and Pfdhps. No evidence was found of artemisinin resistance mutations on kelch13. Population structure showed that a single cluster accounted for 93.4% of the P. falciparum samples whereas three clusters were found for P. vivax. Our study shows a low genetic diversity for both species with significant differences in genetic sub-structuring. The high prevalence of CQ-resistance mutations could be a result of indirect selection pressures driven by the P. vivax treatment scheme. These results could be useful for public health authorities to safeguard the progress that Peru has achieved towards malaria elimination.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo16474
PublicaciónScientific Reports
Volumen12
N.º1
DOI
EstadoPublicada - dic. 2022
Publicado de forma externa

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