Brimonidine Can Prevent In Vitro Hydroquinone Damage on Retinal Pigment Epithelium Cells and Retinal Müller Cells

Claudio Ramírez, Javier Cáceres-Del-Carpio, Justin Chu, Joshua Chu, M. Tarek Moustafa, Marilyn Chwa, G. Astrid Limb, Baruch D. Kuppermann, M. Cristina Kenney

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículorevisión exhaustiva

25 Citas (Scopus)


Purpose: Brimonidine is a selective alpha-2 adrenergic agonist used to reduce intraocular pressure and it has been shown to have some neuroprotective effects. Hydroquinone (HQ) is a toxicant present in cigarette smoke, and other sources. In this study, we investigated the cyto-protective effects in vitro of Brimonidine on human retinal pigment epithelium cells (ARPE-19) and human retinal Müller cells (MIO-M1) that had been treated with HQ. Methods: Cells were pretreated for 6 h with different doses of Brimonidine tartrate 0.1% (1/2x, 1x, 5x, 10x), followed by a 24-h exposure to 100 μM of HQ, while the Brimonidine was still present. Assays were used to measure cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. Results: Brimonidine increased the cell viability at all concentrations studied in both cell lines studied. ΔΨm also improved at all Brimonidine doses in ARPE-19 cells and in the 5x and 10x dosages MIO-M1 cells. The ROS levels decreased at 1x, 5x, and 10x doses of Brimonidine in ARPE-19 but only at 10x on MIO-M1 cells. The 10x-Brimonidine ARPE-19 cells had decreased LDH release, but no LDH changes were observed on MIO-M1 cells. Conclusion: HQ-induced toxicity is mediated through mitochondrial damaging, oxidative stress-related and necrosis-related pathways; Brimonidine significantly prevented the mitochondrial damaging and oxidative stress-related effects but had little effect on blocking the necrosis component of HQ-toxicity. Brimonidine protective effects differ between the different retinal cell types and high concentrations of Brimonidine (10x) have minimal damaging effects on human retinal cells.

Idioma originalInglés
Páginas (desde-hasta)102-108
Número de páginas7
PublicaciónJournal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
EstadoPublicada - mar. 2016
Publicado de forma externa


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