Basic empathy scale: A systematic review and reliability generalization meta-analysis

Javier Cabedo-Peris, Manuel Martí-Vilar, César Merino-Soto, Mafalda Ortiz-Morán

Producción científica: Contribución a una revistaArtículo de revisiónrevisión exhaustiva

6 Citas (Scopus)


The Basic Empathy Scale (BES) has been internationally used to measure empathy. A systematic review including 74 articles that implement the instrument since its development in 2006 was carried out. Moreover, an evidence validity analysis and a reliability generalization meta-analysis were performed to examine if the scale presented the appropriate values to justify its application. Results from the systematic review showed that the use of the BES is increasing, although the research areas in which it is being implemented are currently being broadened. The validity analyses indicated that both the type of factor analysis and reliability are reported in validation studies much more than the consequences of testing are. Regarding the meta-analysis results, the mean of Cronbach’s α for cognitive empathy was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77–0.85), with high levels of heterogeneity (I2 = 98.81%). Regarding affective empathy, the mean of Cronbach’s α was 0.81 (95% CI: 0.76–0.84), with high levels of heterogeneity. It was concluded that BES is appropriate to be used in general population groups, although not recommended for clinical diagnosis; and there is a moderate to high heterogeneity in the mean of Cronbach’s α. The practical implications of the results in mean estimation and heterogeneity are discussed.

Idioma originalInglés
Número de artículo29
PublicaciónHealthcare (Switzerland)
EstadoPublicada - ene. 2022


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