Antimicrobial resistance in rural settings in latin America: A scoping review with a one health lens

Maria Luisa Medina-Pizzali, Stella M. Hartinger, Gabriela Salmon-Mulanovich, Anika Larson, Maribel Riveros, Daniel Mäusezahl

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in rural Latin America is not fully understood. The transmission pathways are partially known since research predominantly focuses on the urban hospital setting. The contribution to AMR from environmental factors is usually only mentioned in large-scale animal production. To understand the state of the literature on AMR in rural LA, we carried out a scoping review using the One Health (OH) perspective. OH recognises the concomitant contributions and interconnectedness of humans, animal, and the environment, thus, we used the OH perspective to select those articles adopting a holistic view of the problem. We searched original articles in English, Spanish, and Portuguese in four peer-reviewed databases and included 21 publications in the analysis. We charted data on bibliometrics, design, data collection sources, and instruments. We identified the human, animal, and environmental contributions to AMR in rural locations, and information gaps on AMR transmission routes and AMR drivers. Intensive and non-intensive animal production systems and agricultural practices were the most frequently found human contributions to AMR. Poultry, swine, cattle, and fish were the most frequent livestock mentioned as sources of AMR bacteria. Animal carriage and/or transfer of AMR determinants or bacteria was recognised as the primary contribution of livestock to the problem, while water, soil, and farming were predominant environmental contributions. We found that only 1 article out of 21 considered the OH approach as a framework for their sampling scheme, whereas 5 out 21 discussed all the three OH components. There were hardly any descriptions of humans or human waste as reservoirs for AMR in rural locations, and rural health centres or hospitals and wildlife were not represented. No studies identified mining as an anthropogenic activity driving AMR. More OH-oriented studies, with emphasis on molecular approaches—for identification and comparison of AMR genes—are sorely needed to understand better the existence of a network of interconnected transmission routes in rural Latin America and provide efficient strategies to prevent further AMR emergence.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9837
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Anthropogenic activities
  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • Environment
  • Latin America
  • Livestock
  • One health


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